The Middle Ages were really dark - Urdu Books World - Urdu Books World

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Friday, 24 May 2019

The Middle Ages were really dark - Urdu Books World

The Italian scientist Francisco Petrarcha put the term dark centuries or dark ages as a critique of late Latin literature, and the English historian Gibbon described these ages as a thousand years of barbarism and domination of religiosity. Historians later expanded the term to include the absence of historical writings, the lack of material civilization and the degeneration in various fields.

Dark Ages is a term used to refer to the Middle Ages in Europe, dating from about 400 to 1400, where the knowledge of the Greeks and Romans that flourished in Europe remained only limited among the churches, monasteries and plaques. The dark ages were characterized by the spread of ignorance and religious extremism and the growing role of the Church In the various spheres of life and also in the spread of bitter wars between European and German peoples.

Many literary magazines in France are now publishing important medieval works, in which they try to answer the question: Were the Middle Ages really dark?

The French critic Hubert Artus pointed out that the Middle Ages no longer only fascinates distinguished historians such as Jacques Lugoff, George Dubai, but also novelists. This may be due to their miraculous worlds, to the strangeness of life in them, to their mysterious, magical rituals.

Circle whispers

Caroline Martinez's novel, "The Circle of the Homs," attracted the admiration of new generations of imagination and revealed exotic worlds in the lives of medieval contemporaries.

The story tells the story of a girl named Esklarmund, from the twelfth century, who chooses to live in the convent, refusing to marry a man she does not like. Caroline Martís wrote her novel in simple, poetic language.

Closed and comprehensive system

In his novel "Woman in front of the mirror," Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt also goes back to the Middle Ages to tell the story of three women living in different epochs: the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the beginning of the 20th century. Which lived in the Middle Ages called I. Like Caroline Martinez's heroine, she refuses to marry a man her family wants to impose on her, fleeing the family home.

"I know the history of the Middle Ages well. She studied philosophy and deepened her knowledge of various aspects related to the philosophy of the Middle Ages. So I can say that I am familiar with the cultural world that was characterized by this period of history, where the great philosophers of Europe, and the Arab world have specialized in the revival of Greek philosophy, especially in Aristotle, Plato, I read the traces of Thomas Aquinas and Ibn Rushd. I also read to the Christian poets who were famous for their tendency to asceticism. "

Speaking of the Middle Ages, Schmidt says, "Based on the first view, this era seems as if it is a closed, comprehensive system, one by one. But she was very rich.

It is the era of spirituality. Religion was the only means men and women used to understand themselves. This contrasts with other historical periods. When I put the events of my novel at the end of the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the Renaissance, I have chosen the period in which the ancient world remains steadfast in the face of the next new. "

Philosophical and literary works

In his novel "The Big Heart," French writer Jean-Christophe Rouffin is interested in places, not in historical epochs such as Eric-Emmanuel Schmidt. The hero of his novel, Jack Core, is a real character. He was an adviser to King Charles VII. He helped him end the 100-year war. But Reuven allowed himself as a novelist to manipulate historical facts to make Jack Lockour the son of a fur trader traveling between East and West, visiting Damascus and Beirut, and living closely with the events of the Crusades.

The Middle Ages were characterized by very important philosophical, literary and poetic works. In philosophy there were Thomas Aquinas, Ibn Rushd, Al-Farabi, Ibn Tufail, Musa ibn Maimon, and Ibn Majah.
In sociology there was Ibn Khaldun. During this period, Arab civilization was known for its glory before the Mongols burnt Baghdad and its great libraries.

French historian Michel Pastoro says that the Middle Ages lasted a thousand years. And thus can not be dominated throughout this period by one culture, one civilization. For him, there are three medieval eras: the first period extends from late antiquity to nearly a thousand years. Then comes the central epoch that includes the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In the end, there is the era that ends between the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Pastoro believes that those who call the Middle Ages "dark" are wrong in their estimation of this important epoch in world history. In every era, disasters, wars and famines occur. From this very beginning, humanity still suffers from all this. The twentieth century, when Western civilization reached its peak, witnessed two world wars, in which humanity did not live.

Pastoro argues that the worst century for Europe is the seventeenth century, which French historians wrongly called the "glorious century" or the "great century" where the philosophy of lights emerged that paved the way for the French revolution and other intellectual and social revolutions, ending the hegemony of the church over political and spiritual life . The century, however, has seen natural disasters whose victims numbered thousands. And the famine has reaped a lot of people, and the tragedies follow one after the other do not keep and do not warn.

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