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Tuesday, 3 September 2019

September 03, 2019

The Oldest ancient Inca City."Machu Pichu" - Urdu Books World



Machu Picchu the Palace of the Emperor

The world's oldest ancient civilizations such as China and Egypt originated in the plains, while the Inca civilization originated in the South American Andes at an altitude of over 6,000 meters. It is cut off by the mountains, people speak different languages, have different living customs, until the emergence of Inca civilization.

At the beginning of the 13th century, the tribal alliance of Inca began to form. In 1438, the Incas made a decisive victory in the Battle of Changka. The ruler at this time was the ninth commander of the Inca history, PachaKuti. In Quechua, PachaKuti means reformers. The great reformers in the Inca history transformed Inca from a tribal alliance into a powerful and unified empire. His major political and religious reforms of the Inca Empire opened the door to the Inca Empire.

Inca in the early 16th century, with an area of ​​more than 2 million square kilometers. Its territory includes today's Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, with a population of more than 6 million.

At that time, people were rumored to be a mythical land. There were golden caves everywhere. The gold was so incredible that the king of gold in charge of this land changed every day with a new coat with golden sand. This legendary magical land is the Inca Empire.

During the heyday of the Inca Empire, rulers built luxury villas around Cusco (the Inca capital). The emperor can take his own entourage and deal with national events in the country houses far away from the capital, a bit like the Yuanmingyuan built by the emperors of the Qing Dynasty. PachaKuti’s private villas are hailed as the best of them. Some historians and archaeologists have judged that the ancient city of Machu Picchu was built during the PachaKuti period.


The ancient city of Machu Picchu, which is more than 2,300 meters above sea level, is located on the steep and narrow ridge of the Andes. It is heavily wrapped in the mountains and mountains. On the cliff side of the mountain, people can enjoy a vertical cliff with a 600-meter drop to the Urubamba River. From a distance, this ancient city seems to be able to slip from a narrow ridge to the abyss at any time. This mysterious castle hidden in the clouds is a true city of the sky.

Stone building inlaid on the cliff

Machu Picchu is about 120 kilometers away from the capital city of Cusco, and the city covers an area of ​​about 90,000 square meters. Machu Picchu is small and can't even be called a city. There are 200 buildings, including temples, houses, warehouses and some public facilities, made of neatly cut stones.

About 1,000 people lived there, and the existing buildings reflect the strict hierarchy of Inca society. The religious areas, civilian areas, nobles and monks' residential areas are strictly divided.

The lower city is the peasant's house. The stone walls of the stone house are well preserved. Only the thatched roof has long disappeared. This is a typical Inca building. All buildings have no windows. Each family has only one room. The stone building materials and materials here. The urban area is much rougher, and the building is not as grand as the urban area. Therefore, the lower city area is also known as the “civilian area”.

Shangcheng District is a palace and temple designed for the nobility, the most striking of which is the Inca Palace and the Grand Tower. The stone walls of these two buildings are very beautiful, comparable to the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Virgin in Cusco, the capital of Inca.

The eastern part of the city is a tombed area divided into three layers. The first floor is the place where the gods of heaven live. The second layer represents the mother of the earth, and the other layer represents the underworld and the destination of life. The Incas believe that as long as the body does not die, the human soul will not be separated from the body, so the Inca nobles and priests are made into mummies after death. The Inca mummies are naturally formed in the tombs. They are exposed to the sun during the day and cold in the night. blow.

The choice of the ancient city ruins has been carefully considered: two residential areas like the two wings of the bird sandwich a square with a slightly concave terrain in the middle, the northeast is the center of secular life, the southwest is a place for public activities; a small square in the western religious area is set up. The shadow wall corresponds to a sacred mountain in the north, and the shadow of the winter solstice summer solstice passes through the window of the sun temple and must fall in the middle of the temple.

The stones used in the Machu Picchu buildings are the smoothest and flattened boulder. There are no bonds between the boulder, but they are not even inserted into a thin piece of paper. The secret of this process is unknown, like the craft of the ancient Egyptians building pyramids on the other side of the globe. People have made many speculations about this. Some people say that the Incas probably invented a chemical that would make the stone soft.

Thousands of huge granite stones come from a quarry 600 meters below the mountain. Even today, when large vehicles such as pulleys, cables, and aircraft can be used, it is extremely difficult to transport massive stones to the cliffs. No one knows how the Incas are done.

a nation that catches up with the sun


It has been said that the Incas who worship the sun are trying to get closer to the sun, so they chose to build a city in the towering Andes. There is a speculation that the inca people whose homes were destroyed have moved to the towering Machu Picchu, which is actually chasing the sun.

Like all Inca towns, the Temple of the Sun occupies the most important position. The Temple of the Sun is the largest and most spectacular building in the ancient city. It is also said to be the Inca's celestial observatory, and its circular appearance is indeed similar to the Chichen Itza Observatory in Mexico.

To the north of Machu Picchu, there is a smaller mountain with a temple of the moon on the back, which is opposite to the Temple of the Sun in the city, so it is also inferred that Machu Picchu is dedicated to the worship of the sun god.

There is also a legend about the sun god and the moon god: when the heavens and the earth are chaotic, the god of creation raises the sun and the moon from Lake Titicaca, the largest freshwater lake in South America. As a result, the moon has always boasted that it is bigger and brighter than the sun. The humiliated sun grabbed a handful of sand and sprinkled it on the face of the moon. This is the origin of the shadow on the moon we see today. From then on, the moon can no longer surpass the sun, the sun becomes the eternal boss, and has always protected the children and grandchildren of the Incas. In Machu Picchu, the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Moon are also from this story.

Why did the empire die out?

In 1532, the Inca Empire was in its heyday, with 6 million nationals. It mastered the advanced non-ferrous metal smelting and processing technology at that time, and was able to produce first-class cold weapons, as well as castles as dangerous as Machu Picchu. But after hundreds of Spanish colonists broke into the Inca Empire, for a short time, the empire died, and the Inca civilization of Machu Picchu lost.

In the history textbooks of American high schools, the reasons for the loss of the Inca Empire were elaborated: in 1531, Francisco Pizarro and 180 soldiers landed on the Pacific coast of South America. They brought muskets and horses, and they also brought disease in Europe. The residents of the Inca Empire had no resistance to this, and the Inca king also died in the plague. After the death of the king, his two sons provoked a civil war in order to compete for the throne. Atahualpa, one of the sons, defeated the other side with the help of the Spanish Francisco Pizarro. After that, Francisco Pizarro occupied the Inca Cuzco and used it as the capital. In 1535, Pizarro established a new capital in Lima and turned it into another colony in Spain. The smashing Inca empire died.

In 1532, the battle for the throne in the Inca Empire and the plague epidemic, the Spanish army broke the kingdom, and the last king of Inca, Atahualpa, became a prisoner of the Spanish. From the end of 1532 until 1533, Atahualpa had ruled the empire as a prisoner.

The King's bail was proposed by the Spaniard to fill up to 9 feet (about 2.7 meters) of gold in a 22-foot (about 6.6-meter) wide 17-foot (about 5 meters) cell. In order to save the king, gold was continuously transported along the road, looking far away, as if it were a continuous gold line.

Every Inca city was ravaged by the Spanish colonists, and the buildings and tombs inscribed with the Inca cultural symbols were spared. The Spanish invasion also brought terrible smallpox, measles, cholera, plague, etc. The ancient Inca people could not resist these diseases, and 95% of the Incas died.

The controversial discoverer, Hiram Bingham

In 1911, the history professor of Yale University, Hiram Bingham organized an expedition expedition to investigate the Andes in Peru. The terrain is extremely steep and the mountain trails are covered in clouds.

One night, the expedition after a long journey went to a small mountain hotel. At rest, Bingham inadvertently listened to the owner saying that there is an abandoned mysterious ancient city at a height of the ridge not far away, and some Ruins of the Incas. Bingham convinced the owner to take him to the ancient city to find out.

The group went through a lot of hardships and boarded the steep Machu Picchu ridge. An ancient Inca city hidden in the vines and grasses, this is a well-preserved Inca city. The buildings in the city are all Inca traditional style: polished regular shaped walls, all buildings are piled with huge granite stones. to make. The city that Bingham found was Machu Picchu. Machu Picchu means the ancient mountains in Inca, and the Inca's intention to build the city is unknown. People couldn't know his original name, so he named it with the name of a mountain nearby.

Bingham completed an archaeological report of the region here, and wrote his first book on the topic of “The Lost Inca City”, which is very popular. In fact, although it can't be found on the map, Machu Picchu is far from being a "lost" city in the true sense.

When Bingham arrived, he found a farmer living here, and some foreign visitors had written names on charcoal on the granite. In 2002, these unseen traces were discovered. It was discovered that Bingham had deliberately concealed these traces in order to become a recognized Machu Picchu discoverer. It is said that Bingham’s light is to erase the paintings on the granite. It took a few days.

In 1912, Bingham and Yale University signed an agreement with the Peruvian government to bring back excavated Machu Picchu ancient artifacts such as pottery, jewelry, stoneware and human bones to the United States for 18 months of scientific research, Bingham. Brought 5,000 pieces of ancient artifacts back to Yale University, these artifacts are still not returned. In the next few years, the ancient city was cleaned up on the one hand, and on the other hand it was looted. Numerous gold and silver treasures disappeared, and boxed porcelain, bio-bone and rock were transported out of Peru.

Hiram Bingham, an explorer who has been in the history of archaeology, has not only enjoyed the creators of the discoverers, but also caused the retreat of Peru's cultural relics for nearly a hundred years and has been controversial.

Urdu Books World !

Thursday, 22 August 2019

August 22, 2019

Congo Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever - Urdu Books World


Key facts
  • The Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) virus causes a series of outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever.
  • The mortality rate during outbreaks of CCHF reaches 40%.
  • The virus is transmitted to humans, mainly from ticks and livestock. Transmission from person to person can occur as a result of close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected people.
  • CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asia, in countries south of the 50th parallel of north latitude.
  • There is no vaccine for humans or animals.

Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease caused by the tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. CCHF virus causes outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever with a mortality rate of 10-40%.

CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel of northern latitude - the geographical border of the distribution of ticks, which is the main carrier.

Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks.
CCHF virus carriers include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Many birds are resistant to this infection, but ostriches are susceptible to it, and among them there may be high rates of infection in endemic areas where they are the source of infection in cases of human disease. For example, one of the past outbreaks of the disease occurred at an ostrich slaughter in South Africa. There are no obvious signs of disease in these animals.

Animals become infected by being bitten by infected ticks, and the virus remains in their bloodstream for approximately one week after infection, which, with subsequent tick bites, ensures the continuation of the tick-animal-tick cycle. Although several types of ticks can become infected with the CCHF virus, the main carriers are ticks of the Hyalomma species.

Transmission of infection
CCHF virus is transmitted to humans either by tick bites or by contact with infected blood or animal tissues during and immediately after slaughter. Most cases of infection occur in people employed in livestock farming, such as farm workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians.

Transmission from person to person can occur as a result of close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected people. Cases of nosocomial infection may also occur as a result of inadequate sterilization of medical equipment, reuse of needles and contamination of medical supplies.

Signs and Symptoms
The duration of the incubation period depends on the method of infection with the virus. After infection by a tick bite, the incubation period usually lasts one to three days, with a maximum duration of nine days. The incubation period after contact with infected blood or tissues usually lasts five to six days with a documented maximum period of 13 days.

Symptoms appear suddenly with fever, myalgia (muscle pain), dizziness, pain and stiffness of the neck, back or lower back pain, headache, inflammation of the eyes and photophobia (sensitivity to light). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the abdomen and sore throat can be observed, followed by sudden mood swings and confusion. After two to four days, excitement can be replaced by drowsiness, depression and fatigue, and pain in the abdomen can be localized in the upper right part with detectable hepatomegaly (enlarged liver).

Other clinical signs include tachycardia (palpitations), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), and a petechial rash (a rash caused by bleeding into the skin) on the inside of the mucous membranes, such as in the mouth and throat, as well as on the skin. The petechial rash can go into a larger rash called ecchymosis, and other hemorrhagic events. Symptoms of hepatitis are usually observed, and after the fifth day of illness in seriously ill patients, there may be a rapid deterioration in kidney function and sudden liver or pulmonary failure.

The mortality rate from CCHF is approximately 30%, with death occurring in the second week of the disease. In recovering patients, improvement usually begins on the ninth or tenth day after the onset of the disease.

Diagnostics

CCHF virus infection can be diagnosed with several different laboratory tests:
 
  • Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA);
  • Detection of antigens;
  • Serum neutralization;
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);
  • Virus isolation in cell cultures.

In terminally ill patients, as well as patients in the first few days of the disease, measurable antibody formation usually does not occur, therefore, diagnosis in such patients is carried out by detecting the virus or RNA in blood or tissue samples.

Testing patient samples presents an extremely high biological risk and should only be carried out under conditions of maximum biosafety. However, if samples are inactivated (e.g., by viricides, gamma radiation, formaldehyde, exposure to high temperatures, etc.), they can be handled under basic biosafety conditions.

Treatment
The main approach to managing CCHF in humans is conventional supportive care with symptom management.

The antiviral drug ribavirin leads to obvious positive results in the treatment of CCHF infection. Both oral and intravenous dosage forms are effective.

Disease Prevention and Control
Fight against CCHF among animals and ticks

Robert Swanepoel / NICD South Africa
It is difficult to prevent and control CCHF infection among animals and ticks, because the tick-animal-tick cycle usually goes unnoticed and the infection in domestic animals usually proceeds without obvious signs. In addition, tick-borne ticks are numerous and widespread, so the only practical option for properly managed livestock enterprises is to control ticks with acaricides (chemicals used to kill ticks). For example, after an outbreak of the disease in an ostrich slaughter in South Africa (mentioned above), measures were taken to ensure that ostriches remained in the quarantine free from ticks for 14 days before slaughter. This measure helped to reduce the risk that the animal was infected during slaughter and prevent the infection of people in contact with animals.
 There are no vaccines for use in animals.

Reducing the risk of human infection
Although an inactivated vaccine derived from mouse brain tissue has been developed against CCHF that has been used on a small scale in Eastern Europe, there is currently no safe and effective vaccine for widespread use in humans.

In the absence of a vaccine, the only way to reduce the number of infections among people is to raise awareness of risk factors and educate people about the measures they can take to limit exposure to the virus.

Public health recommendations should focus on several aspects.

  • Reducing the risk of transmission of the virus from ticks to humans:

  1.  Wear protective clothing (long sleeves, long trousers);
  2.  Wear light-colored clothing that makes it easy to spot ticks on clothing;
  3.  Apply approved acaricides (chemicals used to kill ticks) for clothing;
  4.  Apply approved repellents to skin and clothing;
  5.  Regularly inspect clothing and skin for ticks; if they are detected, remove them using safe methods;
  6. To strive to prevent the defeat of animals by ticks or to fight against ticks in rooms for keeping animals;
  7.  Avoid staying in areas where there are a large number of ticks, and in those seasons when they are most active.

  • Reducing the risk of transmission of the virus from animals to humans:

  1. Keep animals in quarantine before they enter the slaughterhouse or treat the animals with pesticides in the usual manner two weeks before slaughter.

  • Reducing the risk of transmission from person to person in selected communities:

  1. Avoid close physical contact with people infected with CCHF;
  2. Wear gloves and protective clothing when caring for sick people;
  3. Wash your hands regularly after caring for or visiting sick people.


Infection control in medical facilities
Health care providers who care for patients with suspected or confirmed CCHF, or who work with samples taken from them, must follow standard infection control measures. These include basic hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, safe injection practices and safe burial practices.

As a precautionary measure, healthcare providers who care for patients directly outside the CCHF outbreak area should also follow standard infection control measures.

Samples taken from people with a proposed CCHF should be handled by specially trained staff working in properly equipped laboratories.

Recommendations for infection control in the process of assisting patients with suspected or confirmed Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever should be consistent with the WHO recommendations developed for Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

WHO activities
WHO works with partners to support CCHF surveillance, diagnostic capacity and outbreak response in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa.

WHO also provides documentation to facilitate research and control of the disease and has developed a memo on standard precautions in medical settings that is designed to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens and other pathogens.

Urdu Books World !

Sunday, 18 August 2019

August 18, 2019

Ancient Greek History



It is the tribes living in the Greek peninsula and the old state and civilization that they established because of the Greek «Helias».

As a farmer, the Hellenes or the ancient Greeks lived a very simple life at the beginning of their history, wearing a woolen shirt on their backs and a cowhide fur on their feet. The villagers used to sit in huts, which consisted of a single room, and slept together with pets. The nobles spent their lives in war, hunting, entertainment and competitions. On the other hand, those who lived by the sea used fishing boats that were not very durable.

Before being invaded by the warlike tribes of the Achaeans and the Boras, communities inhabited each other in small plains surrounded by mountains on the Greek Peninsula. Of these sites, Athens and Isparta, in particular, have a special place in the Ancient Greek civilization.

Ancient Greek people BC VI. century in the coast of Anatolia and the Mediterranean (Southern Italy, Sicily) established new cities. In spite of the great discrepancies and competition between the sites, the ancient Greek communities formed a union in terms of religion and language and thanks to this union, the sites repulsed the Persians and won two great victories against the Persians despite the crushing of the Isparta army in Termopil (Thermopylai). 490) and the Battle of Salamis (480 BC).

After these events, the ancient Greek civilization developed and especially Athens, the architects, scholars, philosophers, poets, musicians, theaters and sculptors eternalized this civilization.

Towards the end of the 5th century, Athens and Isparta wanted to dominate the whole of Greece, as the sites reconnected. That is why the Peloponnes War raged the whole country, and the plague broke the people of Athens. Thus, Athens came under pressure from Isparta and had to give up its own laws (404 BC).

The Persians who took advantage of these fights seized Anatolia but could not acquire the territory of Greece. But soon the King of Macedonia, Philippos II, would have no difficulty in conquering Greece (337 BC).

Alexander Empire

Alexander the Great's son, Alexander the Great, subjugated the rebelling sites (Thebai was razed to the ground) and began his conquests with ambition. Within a decade, he established a vast empire from the Mediterranean to the Indian coast. He settled on Darius III's throne, married his daughter, acquired new counselors, and adopted many Eastern customs. The weak unity of the Alexander Empire, however, could not withstand the competition among its successors. With the disintegration of the empire, the power of the real Greece came to an end; it was replaced by cities such as Antioch, Pergamum and Alexandria.

From Romans to Turks

The Greeks resisted the Celtic attacks for a while, but could not bear the power of the Romans and eventually succumbed to them (146 BC). Ancient Greek civilization was so rich that Rome not only looted this wealth and treasures of art, but also tried to imitate it: Greek literature, art and mythology became the most valid source for the Romans and eventually changed their civilization in a certain way. Politically, Old Greece has now become two provinces governed by proconsul. It was excluded from the great economic circulation of the Roman Empire, which gave them a summer residence.

Foreign invasions (Visigoth, Ostrogoth, Islav, Bulgarians) overturned this period of peace and led to the destruction and disintegration of Greece (from the third century to the Xth century).

Sites and Citizens

Establishment of sites in ancient Greece is a 2,500-year event, and the foundation of this civilization is the site (the police). Each site consisted of a small number (five to ten thousand) citizens; Citizens living on the site would have the right to participate in state administration by taking on various tasks (financiers, soldiers) in order and benefiting from the security of the laws.

The inhabitants were not politically equal: strangers and slaves had no rights. They were deemed as despicable and based on their elimination.

Citizens lived in the central part of the city; it was a fortified fortress during the war, and the center of political, intellectual, religious and economic life in the days of peace. Each site had its own gods and religions practiced only by its citizens.

Training also varied according to the sites. In Isparta, the children had a very strict military education. They could kill slaves (heilos) to prove their composure and insensitivity during out of teens. And they would remain soldiers ready for war for life.

The ancient Greek cities were very lively; the shopping places here were similar to the bazaars and markets seen in the current Near Eastern cities. All citizens, even slaves, gathered in a big square called agora in the middle of the city. The screams of the vegetable, wine and fish sellers met, cheered, talked, argued and shoved between the carpet and rug exhibits.

In Athens, citizens gathered in the popular parliament called Ekklesia, where they discussed the problems of their sites and made decisions about war or peace.

The open-air theater in which Sophocles, Aiskilos, Euripides 'tragedies or Aristophanes' comedies were played, was the only entertainment of the people.

Greek civilization BC Reached the highest level in the 5th century; III. century, Alexander's conquests spread all over. Despite the defeat of the army, Greece's influence extended to Rome and played a major role in the development of Roman civilization.

Highness and Misery

The beauty of the monumental buildings and the dazzling brilliance of literature should not mislead us. At that time, most Greeks lived in ruined huts in villages, simple houses in cities and primitive conditions. Sewer waters flowed through narrow streets without curb and light. All sides were full of flies, mosquitoes, mice. Anyone who came to Athens or Isparta from the outside would first encounter scum and heavy smells.

The Age of Pericles

During the period of Perikles (495-429 BC), Athens established its superiority over other Greek sites thanks to its social and cultural achievements. The ik Pericles Age bir has made a remarkable development in the field of history (Herodotus), philosophy (Socrates and Plato), theater (Aiskilos [Aiskhylos], Sophocles, Euripides) and in particular art (the works of the sculptor Pheidias in the Acropolis).

Isparta

Isparta, the great rival of Athens, was ruled by an aristocratic regime. His people consisted of three classes: heilos (slaves taken prisoner in war and cultivating the land), perioikos (Akas subjugated to Isparta) and equals (class of warriors, all considered citizens). Starting from the age of seven, the equals, who had a hard and strict education, made Isparta the most powerful state of Greece until the Med Wars.

Religion on site

Religion was part of life on the estate. All the people of the site participated in religious ceremonies directed by high officials. The rituals were bound by strict rules and required sincere participation: the Greeks believed that the gods who were jealous and feisty would not protect themselves if they did not agree sincerely.

Aristophanes

Aristophanes (445-386 BC) wrote forty comedies; The main ones are: Clouds, Wasps, Birds, Lysistrata, Plutos and Women's Assembly. Aristophanes, with a masterful style full of inventions, attacks war, opponents, money and makes the courts of Athens ridiculous. The naughty words he didn't hesitate to use would make everyone, ordinary people as well as elites laugh.

Urdu Books World !

Saturday, 17 August 2019

August 17, 2019

The Security Council held closed-door consultations on Jammu and Kashmir

The Security Council held closed-door consultations on Jammu and Kashmir. The three countries of India and Pakistan explained their positions to reporters.

On the morning of August 16, the Security Council held an informal closed-door consultation meeting under the "India-Pakistan issue" and heard a briefing by the UN Secretariat on the current situation in Kashmir and the work of the United Nations-India-Pakistan Military Observer Group.

Chinese position


After the consultations, Zhang Jun, the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations, spoke to reporters outside the Council Chamber and elaborated on China’s position on the Kashmir issue.

Zhang Jun said that the Security Council has just discussed the situation in Kashmir. The members of the Security Council expressed serious concern about the current situation in Kashmir. They hope that the relevant parties will exercise restraint and avoid unilateral actions to further escalate the situation and call on the two sides to properly resolve the issue through dialogue.

Zhang Jun said that the Kashmir issue is a legacy of history between India and Pakistan. The relevant resolutions of the Security Council have determined that Kashmir’s status is undetermined and is an internationally recognized disputed area. The Kashmir issue should be properly resolved in a peaceful manner in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, relevant Security Council resolutions and bilateral agreements. This is the consensus of the international community.

Zhang Jun said that the Indian revision of the constitution changed the status quo in Kashmir and triggered regional tensions. The Chinese side expresses grave concern over the current situation in Kashmir and opposes any unilateral actions that complicate the situation. It calls on the parties concerned to exercise restraint and act cautiously, especially to avoid actions that aggravate the tension.

Zhang Jun said that the Indian side’s measures have also challenged China’s sovereign rights and interests, contrary to the agreement between the two sides on safeguarding the border areas between the two countries and peace and security. China is seriously concerned about this. He emphasized that the Indian side's measures will not have any effect on China, and will not change the fact that China exercises sovereignty over the relevant territories and the status quo of effective jurisdiction.

Zhang Jun said that both India and Pakistan are China's friendly neighbors and all are big developing countries, all of which are in a critical period of development. China calls on both sides to focus on national development, focus on peace in South Asia, properly handle historical grievances, break the zero-sum thinking, avoid unilateral actions, resolve disputes peacefully, and jointly safeguard the overall situation of regional peace and stability.

Pakistani position


Pakistani Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Maleeha Lodi, told reporters before the Security Council that Pakistan welcomes the United Nations Security Council to convene this meeting to discuss the controversial issues of Jammu and Kashmir. This is the first time the Security Council has considered this issue for more than 50 years. The convening of this meeting proved that this involved an international dispute. Some people tried to stop this meeting, and Pakistan thanked all 15 UN Security Council members for agreeing to convene this meeting.

She said that the voice of the occupied Kashmiri people has been heard today on the world's highest diplomatic platform. They are not alone. Their plight, suffering, suffering, occupation and the results of their occupation have been known today in the United Nations Security Council.

She said that the meeting reaffirmed the effectiveness of the UN Security Council resolution on the occupied Jammu and Kashmir state. Pakistan stands ready to resolve the Jammu and Kashmir issue peacefully. I think today's meeting denies India's claim that Jammu and Kashmir are India's internal affairs. Today, the world is discussing the situation in occupied Jammu and Kashmir and there.

She said that as the Chinese ambassador emphasized, the human rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir is very bad, and India is committing human rights violations in the face of impunity. The Security Council also discussed this issue today.

She said that the Pakistani Foreign Minister was hoping that the world would know that the meeting between Jammu and Kashmir was the first step taken by the Pakistani representatives of Jammu and Kashmir. But this is only the first step and will not end there. This effort will only end when the people of Jammu and Kashmir are treated fairly.

Indian position


India’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Akbaruddin, told reporters that the Indian side noted that two member states that had issued national statements tried to disguise the national statement as the will of the international community. The Council is a deliberative body. The way it works is well thought out. The outcome of the discussions is provided to all Member States through the President of the Council. Therefore, since some countries try to disguise their national statements as the will of the international community, India also hopes to take this opportunity to elaborate on its own national position.

He said that India’s position was and still remains: the affairs related to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution are entirely internal affairs of India. These transactions do not have an external impact. The recent decisions of the Indian government and legislature are aimed at ensuring good governance and improving the socio-economic development of the people of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.

He said that this morning, the Chief Minister of the Jammu-Kashmir Central Territory announced a series of measures the government is taking to normalize. During the closed consultations, the Security Council expressed its appreciation and recognition for the above efforts and expressed the hope that the international community will move in the same direction. India is pleased with this.

Akbaruddin said that India is committed to the phasing out of all restrictions and has announced relevant timetables. In addition, given that this change takes place within India and has no impact on India’s foreign policy, India remains committed to ensuring stability and peace in the Kashmir region. India will also comply with all the agreements it has signed on this issue.

He said that India has noticed that some people are trying to present the current situation in an alarmist way, which is far from the actual situation on the first line. Of particular concern is the fact that one country, including the country’s leaders, used the jihad vocabulary for India and incited violence in India. He said that violence is definitely not a solution to the problem before us all. India is committed to resolving all issues between India and Pakistan, as well as India and any other country, through bilateral, peaceful, and the normal relations between nations, which is consistent with India’s consistent position.

He said that in the face of some individuals who should not make similar moves to promote terrorism, using jihad vocabulary and inflammatory rhetoric, India feels sad.

Akbaruddin said that India stands ready to continue to work towards a peaceful solution to all problems without the atmosphere of terror and violence.



History background
India and Pakistan manage parts of Kashmir, respectively, but both sides claim sovereignty over Kashmir. Since the division of India and Pakistan in 1947, the two sides have repeatedly fought for war in Kashmir.

The United Nations has long been stationed in disputed areas between India and Pakistan. In accordance with the mandate set out in Security Council resolution 307 of 1971, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan observed and reported on the violations of the ceasefire along the lines of control and the working borders and on both sides of the two South Asian neighbours in Jammu and Kashmir. And report developments that may lead to violations of the ceasefire.

United Nations position


UN Secretary-General Guterres issued a statement on August 8 calling for maximum restraint. He stated that the position of the United Nations in the region is subject to the Charter of the United Nations and the applicable Security Council resolutions. He also reviewed the 1972 Agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan, also known as the Shimla Agreement. He insisted that the final status of Jammu and Kashmir should be resolved through peaceful means in accordance with the UN Charter.
August 17, 2019

Kashmir crisis: China supports discussion in UN but Modi insists on "Indian dream"



Indian Prime Minister Modi said that the abolition of the status of India-controlled Kashmir's special autonomy will restore the region to "the glory of the past." From the internal affairs of India, why did Modi make such a decision?

Earlier, China had already supported the request of Pakistan at the United Nations and requested the UN Security Council to urgently discuss India's decision to revoke the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. However, the move by China and Pakistan was opposed by France.

France responded by suggesting that the Council discuss the issue informally next week. In August 2019, Poland, the rotating presidency of the Security Council, will negotiate between 15 member states and agree on a time and form for mediation.

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Indian Dream.
Indian Prime Minister Modi said in his speech on Indian Independence Day on August 15 that Kashmir will play an important role in the development of India.

He said that Article 370 of the Indian Constitution that gave Kashmir's special status in the past would only encourage corruption.

But Modi did not mention the comprehensive martial law and communications blockade imposed by India in Kashmir for more than a week. After the abolition of India-controlled Kashmir’s autonomous status, Indians can no longer be restricted by past laws to purchase local assets or immigrate to the local area.

Pakistan has responded strongly to India’s decision to abolish the status of Indian-controlled Kashmir. Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan warned that India’s decision could lead to a full-scale armed conflict between the two countries. The Palestinians expelled the Indian high school (ambassador) in Pakistan and announced that they would no longer send high-level ambassadors to India. Interrupt the bilateral trade and important railway traffic between the two countries.

As the military confrontation between India and Pakistan on both sides of the actual control line in Kashmir is even more severe, UN Secretary-General Guterres issued a statement to maintain concern about the changes in the situation in Kashmir and called on India and Pakistan to exercise maximum restraint.

India's point of view: domestic factors of Modi's move
Ashok Malik, a senior researcher at the Observer Research Foundation in Delhi, India, believes that the perception of the Kashmir issue in India is harder and creates an atmosphere that allows such action.

He said that in India's crackdown on Kashmir's local counter-insurgency in July 2016, the militant leader of the local armed group, Burhan Vanni, was shot dead by the Indian military.

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He believes that the death of Vanni and the subsequent violence are a new stage of riots in Kashmir, and the call for freedom is overwhelmed by the voice of Islamic Jihad. Therefore, Malik believes that the main voice of India-controlled Kashmir is no longer to demand the establishment of independent Kashmir, or even to merge with Pakistan, but that Islamic extremists demand the establishment of a fundamentalist caliphate.

He said that the events of 2016 had another impact in India, and radical left-wing groups launched a campaign against Prime Minister Modi on the Kashmir issue on campuses, media debates and public platforms across India. This eventually led to a rebound in Indian public opinion.

These views are different from many other views on the Kashmir issue. Many observers believe that India's cancellation of India-controlled Kashmir's autonomous status originated from the appeal of Indian nationalists, and the Modi government responded to populist demands after winning the re-election, and made a move to change the historical status in the name of counter-terrorism.

Thursday, 30 May 2019

May 30, 2019

10 incredible inventions of ancient Greeks


Ancient Greek culture is, in many ways, considered to be one of the world's leading cultures ever - and the technology sector is not excluded from all of the areas where it has excelled, with many inventions of the ancient Greek world "coming" until today.

Here are some of them, for which (perhaps) you would not expect that they were living in the ancient Greek world.

Hydraulic clock (clock): Inquisition of Alexandros Ktimacios, considered as one of the pioneers of automation. It was based on the beginning of the hourglass and could be used at night or overcast (generally without the sun).

Fire pump: And this was based on the invention of Kthyzhiou, who created the manual pump, which has arrived to our days (after Ktissibiou perfected it as a fire pump by Heron). Generally, Kthybis had been very busy with the pressure of air and fluids, with a range of inventions ranging from compressed-air weapons to lifts and a ... fit!

Odometer: It is believed to have been a creation of the Heron of Alexandria, and it was a construction that could be transported to wheeled vehicles to record distances.

Central Heating: It is said that the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus - one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World - was heated by pipelines that were on the floor and made the heat generated by fires circulated.

The robot: Filon the Byzantium, a pupil of Ktesiviou, is considered to be the "link" between Ktesiwi and Heron, such as a horse who drank water, a little girl who buzzed water, a maid, etc. This work was continued by the famous Heron the Alexandrian (1st nd-1st century AD), who created a large number of mobile devices - eg a mobile automatic theater. His work describes in detail the "Automated", the oldest known text with descriptions of automatic mechanical systems that could make programmed movements.

Lever: "Let me go and I can move" (give me somewhere to stand and move the Earth). Archimedes' famous plot is about discovering the lever-something so simple, and at the same time so wondrous.

Hydraulic wheel: A water pumping system attributed to Dimitrios Poliorketas (one of Alexander the Great's successors, best known for his besieging machines).

Alarm clock: It is said that Aristotle had made it to wake up quickly and study more. They consisted of a container of water that emptied with a selected flow rate (in each case) into another container carrying a hinged hemispheric float. At the predetermined moment of filling the container the float was overturned and the beads placed on its flat surface fell into a cup (or dish) causing noise. A similar device was the "Plato's alarm clock".

The Music Mirror: Another Kitesivi's work - a height-adjustable mirror that could balance in any location, producing musical notes at the same time.

The Archimedes steam cannon: It consisted of a metal cylindrical boiler that was connected to it with a closed water container. The boiler at its open end had a wooden barrel embedded in the stone bullet to be ejected. The barrel encrusted with a wooden beam secured with two trusses. When the boiler had reached the appropriate temperature with fire, the tap was opened, the water dropped to the boiler, evaporated rapidly, the wooden beams broke and the bullet was thrown.

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Wednesday, 29 May 2019

May 29, 2019

10 Benefits of Watermelon (Usage and Damage) - Urdu Books World


There can be no other option than the melting pot to heat the throat and remove the heat. Watermelon is the most important fruit of summer, which not only quenches thirst, but also calms hunger. This article on StyleCrage is based on this particular fruit, in this article we will discuss the medicinal properties of Watermelon, which you may not know about. Let us first learn a brief history of watermelon.

History of watermelon
Watermelon is larger in size. It is green from the inside and green from the outside. Watermelon contains more than 90 percent of the water. Watermelon is found in sweet, flavored and bitter forms. The place of origin is said to be around the Kalahari Desert of South Africa. It is said that the first crop of watermelon was grown in Egypt about 5 thousand years ago. Watermelons were often kept in the tombs of kings, so that they could feed them even after life.

It is believed that the cultivation of watermelon began in China in the 10th century and today China is the largest producer of watermelon. In India too, it is cultivated on a large scale. Let us know about the various physical benefits of watermelon.

Benefits of Watermelon

1. Heart Health
The benefits of watermelon for heart health are many. According to the research, drinking the watermelon or its juice daily can prevent the accumulation of bad cholesterol, which can cause heart disease. According to the study, there is a substance called citrlline found in melon behind these cardiovascular properties of watermelon. Research has shown that citrlline can have a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis is a heart disease, in which fat, cholesterol and other substances are formed on the walls of the artery. In addition, citrlines can also work to reduce arterial stiffness in women after menopause.
2. Digestive Health
Watermelon can help you to run the digestive system smoothly. Watermelon contains excessive water and water is considered the most important ingredient in digesting food. Apart from this, fiber is also found in it, as well as keeping the digestive system healthy and working with problems like constipation, diarrhea and gas. You can include watermelon in your daily diet to avoid stomach problems.

3. For weight loss
There are lots of benefits of watermelon for weight loss too. Those who are troubled by their growing weight, they can include watermelon in their daily diet. Weight loss is one of the best health benefits of watermelon. The calorie intake is low in watermelon, whereas fiber is found more. Apart from this, it has high amount of water, which can help to remove the toxic substances from the body and lose weight.

A large piece of watermelon contains about 86 calories, less than 1 gram fat and 22 grams of carbus. It does not contain cholesterol and it provides 5 percent of the daily fiber requirement, which helps in burning fat and weight loss.

4. Keeps Hydrate
To keep the body healthy, it is very important to remain hydrated, that is, water should be in sufficient quantity in your body. Dehydration can cause many physical problems, such as constipation, weakness, head dizziness, headache, mouth drying, flatulence and low BP etc. Watermelon contains excessive water, so it works to keep the body hydrated. Especially, the problem of dehydration during the summer is high, so doctors recommend drinking watermelon juice. It releases the body and keeps the stomach cool.

5. Cancer
The benefits of watermelon are also very good for a deadly disease like cancer. Melon is found in watermelon, which can protect against cancer. Watermelon receives red color due to lycopene. It is a powerful antioxidant, so it can prevent cancer from growing in the body.

According to a study, lycopene contains chemo retroviral properties, which can reduce the risk of prostate cancer, especially. According to another study, lycopene may reduce or prevent the side effects of chemotherapy with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

6. Muscle Pain
Watermelon can also benefit from muscle pain. This particular fruit is rich in electrolytes and amino acid citrlines, after exercise, can calm the pain in the throat muscles. According to a study, citrine present in melon can help reduce the pain of muscles. Therefore, to avoid the pain of muscle, you can include melon in your daily diet.

7. Disease resistance
Due to being rich in Vitamin C, the disease of the melon body strengthens the immune system. In addition, fiber is also found in watermelon, which acts to keep the intestines healthy. This particular fruit also contains vitamin B6, which helps the immune system to produce antibodies. Vitamin-A in the watermelon controls the immune system and prevents infection. Immune systems remain strong for a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, you can place the watermelon in your daily diet.

8. For Asthma
Here again, the benefits of lycopene present in watermelon can be seen. It is an effective antioxidant, which can prove effective for asthma patients. In a study conducted on 17 adults suffering from asthma, therapeutic effect of lycopene has been observed. According to another report, adequate intake of lycopene and vitamin A can be beneficial for asthmatics.

9. Kidney Health
Potassium is low in watermelon compared to other nutrients. According to a report from the US National Kidney Foundation, watermelon can benefit people with kidney disease. To keep kidney healthy, incorporating watermelon into daily diet can be a good option.

10. Blood Pressure Control
Watermelon is rich in amino acids called citrine, which can be beneficial for blood pressure. According to a study in Florida State University, citrine could be helpful in controlling blood pressure.

Watermelon is also a good source of potassium, which is known to reduce hypertension. Potassium is also an electrolyte that regulates blood pressure during exercise. Another study also supports the blood pressure control properties of watermelon. Research has found that watermelon can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

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Tuesday, 28 May 2019

May 28, 2019

Natural home care to rejuvenate the skin around your eyes



Moisturizing the skin around your eyes

Creams
Herbal eye creams are available at most pharmacies.

  1. They contain eyebright, marigold, aloe vera and oils such as wheat germ, avocado and macadamia.
  2. Apply in the morning and evening.


Oils

The use of easy-to-apply vegetable oils, including almond, apricot, jojoba, and coconut oil, is a great way to moisturize sensitive areas around your eyes and keep your skin smooth.


  • Apply a few drops directly to your skin or moisten a bandage of gauze or cotton with oil and place it on your closed eyes and the surrounding skin.


Reduce dark circles under the eyes


Whether the problem is due to lack of sleep, allergies or simply age, no one is to his advantage with dark circles under the eyes. Here are three homemade recipes to help you:


1. Mask for the eyes


  1. Mix one tablespoon of egg white in three tablespoons of plain yogurt to make a refreshing mask for the eyes.
  2. Tap the dark circles under the eyes and let the mask dry, then rinse with warm water.


2. Invigorating compress for the eyes



  1. Pour a cup of boiling water over a teaspoonful of each of the flowers of birch and linden.
  2. Let stand for five minutes and filter.
  3. Moisten two swabs or cotton balls in the cooled liquid and place on your closed eyes for a few minutes.


3. Cucumber


One of the easiest ways to eliminate dark circles under the eyes is to place fresh and cold cucumber slices on your eyelids.

Clean your skin

Before applying a moisturizer, cream or oil under the eyes, clean the area around the eye by tapping carefully with a plant-based cleansing lotion on a cotton pad.


  1. As the skin around your eyes is very delicate, it is not recommended to rub the eye care products.
  2. Instead, apply them carefully with your finger and have them gently penetrate below the eye, from the outside to the inside.


Try these homemade tricks to clear your dark circles. If you are in a hurry, use concealer to cover dark circles by applying this visual first aid.

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