Urdu Books World

Urdu Books, IT Books, Urdu Novels, Urdu Islamic Books, Urdu Notes. Magazines, Article, Kids Books, Imran Series, English Books,

Breaking

Sunday, 18 August 2019

Ancient Greek History



It is the tribes living in the Greek peninsula and the old state and civilization that they established because of the Greek «Helias».

As a farmer, the Hellenes or the ancient Greeks lived a very simple life at the beginning of their history, wearing a woolen shirt on their backs and a cowhide fur on their feet. The villagers used to sit in huts, which consisted of a single room, and slept together with pets. The nobles spent their lives in war, hunting, entertainment and competitions. On the other hand, those who lived by the sea used fishing boats that were not very durable.

Before being invaded by the warlike tribes of the Achaeans and the Boras, communities inhabited each other in small plains surrounded by mountains on the Greek Peninsula. Of these sites, Athens and Isparta, in particular, have a special place in the Ancient Greek civilization.

Ancient Greek people BC VI. century in the coast of Anatolia and the Mediterranean (Southern Italy, Sicily) established new cities. In spite of the great discrepancies and competition between the sites, the ancient Greek communities formed a union in terms of religion and language and thanks to this union, the sites repulsed the Persians and won two great victories against the Persians despite the crushing of the Isparta army in Termopil (Thermopylai). 490) and the Battle of Salamis (480 BC).

After these events, the ancient Greek civilization developed and especially Athens, the architects, scholars, philosophers, poets, musicians, theaters and sculptors eternalized this civilization.

Towards the end of the 5th century, Athens and Isparta wanted to dominate the whole of Greece, as the sites reconnected. That is why the Peloponnes War raged the whole country, and the plague broke the people of Athens. Thus, Athens came under pressure from Isparta and had to give up its own laws (404 BC).

The Persians who took advantage of these fights seized Anatolia but could not acquire the territory of Greece. But soon the King of Macedonia, Philippos II, would have no difficulty in conquering Greece (337 BC).

Alexander Empire

Alexander the Great's son, Alexander the Great, subjugated the rebelling sites (Thebai was razed to the ground) and began his conquests with ambition. Within a decade, he established a vast empire from the Mediterranean to the Indian coast. He settled on Darius III's throne, married his daughter, acquired new counselors, and adopted many Eastern customs. The weak unity of the Alexander Empire, however, could not withstand the competition among its successors. With the disintegration of the empire, the power of the real Greece came to an end; it was replaced by cities such as Antioch, Pergamum and Alexandria.

From Romans to Turks

The Greeks resisted the Celtic attacks for a while, but could not bear the power of the Romans and eventually succumbed to them (146 BC). Ancient Greek civilization was so rich that Rome not only looted this wealth and treasures of art, but also tried to imitate it: Greek literature, art and mythology became the most valid source for the Romans and eventually changed their civilization in a certain way. Politically, Old Greece has now become two provinces governed by proconsul. It was excluded from the great economic circulation of the Roman Empire, which gave them a summer residence.

Foreign invasions (Visigoth, Ostrogoth, Islav, Bulgarians) overturned this period of peace and led to the destruction and disintegration of Greece (from the third century to the Xth century).

Sites and Citizens

Establishment of sites in ancient Greece is a 2,500-year event, and the foundation of this civilization is the site (the police). Each site consisted of a small number (five to ten thousand) citizens; Citizens living on the site would have the right to participate in state administration by taking on various tasks (financiers, soldiers) in order and benefiting from the security of the laws.

The inhabitants were not politically equal: strangers and slaves had no rights. They were deemed as despicable and based on their elimination.

Citizens lived in the central part of the city; it was a fortified fortress during the war, and the center of political, intellectual, religious and economic life in the days of peace. Each site had its own gods and religions practiced only by its citizens.

Training also varied according to the sites. In Isparta, the children had a very strict military education. They could kill slaves (heilos) to prove their composure and insensitivity during out of teens. And they would remain soldiers ready for war for life.

The ancient Greek cities were very lively; the shopping places here were similar to the bazaars and markets seen in the current Near Eastern cities. All citizens, even slaves, gathered in a big square called agora in the middle of the city. The screams of the vegetable, wine and fish sellers met, cheered, talked, argued and shoved between the carpet and rug exhibits.

In Athens, citizens gathered in the popular parliament called Ekklesia, where they discussed the problems of their sites and made decisions about war or peace.

The open-air theater in which Sophocles, Aiskilos, Euripides 'tragedies or Aristophanes' comedies were played, was the only entertainment of the people.

Greek civilization BC Reached the highest level in the 5th century; III. century, Alexander's conquests spread all over. Despite the defeat of the army, Greece's influence extended to Rome and played a major role in the development of Roman civilization.

Highness and Misery

The beauty of the monumental buildings and the dazzling brilliance of literature should not mislead us. At that time, most Greeks lived in ruined huts in villages, simple houses in cities and primitive conditions. Sewer waters flowed through narrow streets without curb and light. All sides were full of flies, mosquitoes, mice. Anyone who came to Athens or Isparta from the outside would first encounter scum and heavy smells.

The Age of Pericles

During the period of Perikles (495-429 BC), Athens established its superiority over other Greek sites thanks to its social and cultural achievements. The ik Pericles Age bir has made a remarkable development in the field of history (Herodotus), philosophy (Socrates and Plato), theater (Aiskilos [Aiskhylos], Sophocles, Euripides) and in particular art (the works of the sculptor Pheidias in the Acropolis).

Isparta

Isparta, the great rival of Athens, was ruled by an aristocratic regime. His people consisted of three classes: heilos (slaves taken prisoner in war and cultivating the land), perioikos (Akas subjugated to Isparta) and equals (class of warriors, all considered citizens). Starting from the age of seven, the equals, who had a hard and strict education, made Isparta the most powerful state of Greece until the Med Wars.

Religion on site

Religion was part of life on the estate. All the people of the site participated in religious ceremonies directed by high officials. The rituals were bound by strict rules and required sincere participation: the Greeks believed that the gods who were jealous and feisty would not protect themselves if they did not agree sincerely.

Aristophanes

Aristophanes (445-386 BC) wrote forty comedies; The main ones are: Clouds, Wasps, Birds, Lysistrata, Plutos and Women's Assembly. Aristophanes, with a masterful style full of inventions, attacks war, opponents, money and makes the courts of Athens ridiculous. The naughty words he didn't hesitate to use would make everyone, ordinary people as well as elites laugh.

Urdu Books World !

No comments:

Post a Comment